Pakistan is a country that has been in the spotlight of international media since its independence. The bad policies of the British at the time of independence led to a lot of early problems in Pakistan. The country has been a victim of political instability since its independence.
Initial problems of Pakistan after independence
In this article, we will look at the initial problems faced by Pakistan after its independence.
1. Choice of capital
The first issue faced by Pakistan was that it had to choose a city as its capital. But none of the cities of Pakistan had enough capacity to become a capital. Karachi was initially chosen as capital of Pakistan. The govt offices were set up in militarily barracks temporarily. Govt servants worked hard day and night in difficult conditions to stabilize the newly formed state.
Later on August 14, 1967, Islamabad has declared the new capital of Pakistan.
2. Establishment of Government
The second problem in Pakistan was establishing a new government.
After Pakistan became independent, Liaquat Ali Khan became the first prime minister and worked hard day and night to establish a competent and good government.
The Liaquat Ali khan government faced problems managing the country’s affairs of West and East Pakistan. It was a major factor contributing to the eventual military coup of 1958.
3. Radcliffe Award
British Viceroy Lord Mountbatten gave responsibility to draw the boundaries of Pakistan to Sir Cyril Radcliffe. Because of his business towards India, he gave many Muslim majority lands to India, which led to mass migration in Punjab and Bengal.
According to criticism, Cyril Radcliffe didn’t understand the ground realities and presented his award. Due to this, even many villages are divided half into Pakistan and half into India.
4. Transfer of Military equipment
The Indians tried to delay the division of assets. Finally, when they handed over Pakistan’s share of military assets to the Pakistan government, The assets were in bad condition and needed immediate repair. But the Pakistan government didn’t have the money to do so.
Due to this unfair division of the military, the Pakistani military got rusted equipment while the Indian army got newer and more advanced weapons
5. Economic issues
The British Indian government divided assets between Pakistan and India. It was agreed that Pakistan would get a share of 7,500 thousand rupees. Firstly, 2,000 lakh rupees of Pakistani shares were transferred. But ِIndia started refusing to give the rest of the Pakistani share. There were lots of difficulties for Pakistan because of the negative attitude of the Indian government.
6. Constitutional issue:
At the time of the formation of Pakistan, the Act of Independence of India was adopted as an interim constitution with some amendments. Still, for a free nation, a constitution must be prepared by its own elected representatives is indispensable. Therefore, the new Constituent Assembly was entrusted with the responsibility of compiling the constitution per the national aspirations. The Constituent Assembly faced severe difficulties in drafting the constitution.
7. Economic Problems
Apart from administrative problems, Pakistan also had to face many economic problems. In United India, it has always been the British policy not to allow Muslim-majority areas to become economically developed.
Read more: How to make Pakistan a better place?
8. Issue of the national language
Addressing a public meeting in Dhaka on March 21, 1948, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah had made it clear that “Urdu will be the only national language of Pakistan.” When he said this statement while addressing the students at Dhaka University, a commotion arose. One of the young students who made this commotion was named Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founder of Bangladesh.
This was the beginning of the language riots, which had created the first rift in the unity of Pakistan.
9. Settlement of refugees
According to the sources, 5.2 million people migrated to Pakistan at the time of independence. It was not easy for Pakistan’s new government to come up with permanent arrangements for the relocation of millions of people when India wasn’t willing to transfer the Pakistani share of financial assets.
But under the leadership of Quaid e Azam and Nawabzada Liaqat Ali Khan, Pakistan took extraordinary measures to settle migrants. The govt took the help of the Pakistan military to set up refugee camps for migrants and provided them with health and food.
10. Canal Water Dispute
The problem of canal water arose due to the unfair and wrong distribution of Punjab.
India blackmailed Pakistan a lot in different years because of the water issue.
11. The killing of Muslims at the time of independence of Pakistan
Some put the number at more than two million, but conservative estimates put the number between five and eight million, with at least 90,000 women killed and at least 90,000 abducted. Muslim blood was shed like water, and it made rivers red.
Manto’s novel ‘ٹھنڈا گوشت’ tells the story of a Sikh who kidnapped a young girl from the same family after killing several Muslim men with his own hands, but when he tried to sexually assault her, he When he reached the railway lines, he found out that she had died of fear.
12. The defense of borders
When Pakistan gained independence and became independent, it was concerned about the defense of its borders since there were issues on its border between the west and east. On the western border, Afghanistan was hostile, and on the eastern border, India was standing.
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